Learning is confused with assimilation and repetition of information. More importance is usually given to infrastructure and equipment than to teaching and learning conditions, to the point of view of the supply than to the demand , to results over processes. The schooling mentality has contributed to limiting the vision and field of education, separating it from the economic, social, and cultural within a broader context. However, when arrived and the goals had not been met, they were reduced and the deadlines extended to They emerge in the decade of , a decade that marks a turn in the history of humanity, when the neoliberal model is established in the world together with its great paradoxes: technological revolution with growing social exclusion, globalization with greater localization, concentration of political and economic power in fewer hands together with expansion and articulation also global of social protest and social movements.
Often the terms society and age , as well as information , communication , knowledge , and learning are used interchangeably, without the due differentiations. However, the term IS is still questionable.
CRC Press Online - Series: Routledge Research in Information Technology and Society
In fact, it has not been incorporated in Glossaries for world bulletins on education or related themes. Parameters or indicators to reflect its feasibility, relevance, and quality have not been established. The Education Index, a component of the Human Development Index HDI calculated by the UNDP, continues to be built from fundamental data - registration plus the diverse educational levels and alphabetization rate - clearly insufficient at the present moment to capture the profile and educational requirements in any society.
Many in fact confuse it with virtual or electronic education e-learning , thus privileging the means and displacing the school system as the axis of education and systematic learning, more often than not reinforcing the strong current trend to privatize education. Constitutive characteristics of Education in the IS usually include: the supply of flexible, diversified, individualized education, fit to the needs of specific groups and objectives.
Hardware predominates over software technology and education itself, information over communication, knowledge, and learning. Even so, a passive and reactive focus prevails regarding the ICTs - seen as tools capable of disseminating information - over an active and proactive focus that perceives the subjects not only as consumers but rather as creators of information and knowledge. Concretely, this is what the Millennium Development Goals propose for education today - objectives acritically adopted by the WSIS - together with gender equality in terms of access to elementary and secondary education, without a specific goal for adult illiteracy.
We are then participating in a curious information age, where the right to education diminishes while the economic and social divide between the North and the South, between the poor and the rich, becomes larger.
Here we enunciate several problems and dilemmas of a conceptual, political, social, ethical, and pedagogical order tied to the IS and Education in the IS within this framework. Castells observes that in highly developed countries, two models can be distinguished. The first is the service economy model -to be found in the U. The second is the Japanese and German industrial production model, where the share of manufacturing employment is still high, but integrated into the new socio-technical paradigm.
Arguably, the latter countries are not less advanced than the former, so he rejects the post-industrialist viewpoint that the shift towards a service economy is an advancement on the informational scale. Rather, he argues, some countries tend more than others towards offshore manufacturing jobs, depending on the policies of enterprises and governments. They are the actual producers, and distributors, of cultural codes.
Again, international information policies must be ready to find an adequate regulatory framework. Policy Implications for the Information Society. In the previous chapter, the existing variety of theories explaining the rise and major implications of the Information Society were analyzed. This undertaking does not paint a very coherent picture of what the Information Society really is or how it should be governed, but it may give us an idea of the existing issues at stake.
From the simple assumption that technological changes do have an impact on society, to more sophisticated concepts on what this impact means in economic and social terms on a national level, while eventually recognizing the increasing need for a more international approach, theories at all of these stages can be divided into market or labour force based approaches. These approaches stress the expansion of the information sector and the increasing importance of knowledge work, technicallydeterministic concepts based upon the ideas of the information revolution and the computerization of society, and more comprehensive theories embracing those issues and aligning them with socio-political aspects.
The dimensions in which the changes towards the evolving Information Society appear are modes of production and productivity, organizational and occupational structures, the advancement of technologies, the redistribution of power, the reformulation of culture and new scenarios of exclusion. Along these dimensions, policy formulations for the Information Society have to be found. Policy Formulation in the Information Society. More specifically, Alistair Duff identifies the following ten issues of information policy: As regards non-information sectors, the reach of information policy was even wider: everything from energy planning to tanker safety […] to national security.
These two perspectives regarding which issues to include in information policy indeed reflect contrasting views on the whole range of discussions going on in this field. However, information policy is not so much about the regulation of a specific means of mass communication as it is about the search for adequate legal and political solutions to broader Information. Society issues, and this is clearly observable in both theories.
Both of them are focused on policies at the national level. This is the right of man to communicate. Both State parties argued that the MacBride Report, 46 conducted under the auspices of UNESCO on disproportional flows of information between the hemispheres and the dominance of the North in all communication matters, including infrastructure as well as content, had politicized the debate too much.
The report was clearly in favour of the establishment of a right to communicate; inter alia, it held:. Communication needs in a democratic society should be met by the extension of specific rights such as the right to be informed, the right to inform, the right to privacy, the right to participate in public communication — all elements of a new concept: the right to communicate.
Research Process and Connectivity in the Information Society
Prior to this, developing countries had claimed that the unidirectional nature of mass media mainly radio and television at the time , concentrated in the North, was not supportive of democracy and aided what they perceived to be cultural imperialism, with serious social and political implications for decolonization and. The Information Society and its Policy Agenda 69 national inter-ethnic conflicts. Although its underlying concern for a fairer and more even distribution of information and knowledge is still of the utmost importance, the Internet, as a new means of mass communication, 53 has doubtlessly added new aspects.
On the one hand, it creates a more democratic environment while, on the other, it raises the concern about how to provide adequate local content. The WSIS can be seen as the first major attempt to constitute a broad policy framework for the information society on an international level. Referring back to the general definition of policy, given above, 55 the goal to be achieved can be set forth as:. This, of course, is very ambitious; however it might prove more useful to take a closer look at the principles and strategies which have already been agreed upon in the context of the WSIS to guide further action in this area.
These can be listed as follows: 1 Involvement of a broad variety of stakeholders: For the development of inclusive and people-centred ICT strategies and an Information Society which is based on national and local needs, cooperation and partnership between governments, the private sector, civil society, and international organizations, is recognized to be vitally important.
Since universal, sustainable, ubiquitous and affordable access to ICTs is essential for digital inclusion, it was acknowledged that the further enhancement of connectivity, the fostering of investment in infrastructure from the private sector, and access to underlying services, such as the energy and postal sectors, are required.
The specified action lines include improved connectivity for publicly accessible institutions such as schools, libraries, hospitals, etc.
The Information Society and its Policy Agenda 71 backbones, and the consideration of special needs of certain vulnerable groups in society — for example elderly or disabled people — in accessing ICTs. The possibility to access and contribute to the available pool of information and knowledge is, therefore, a central issue, and should be facilitated by a rich public domain, appropriate software models and the like.
The role of the Internet and its accessibility to all, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, was found to be crucial in this process. Furthermore, it was agreed that the creation of adequate local content and the enhancement of ICT research and development, as well as increased cooperation and technology transfer between developed and developing countries, in order to ensure their competitiveness, played an important role.
In the actions set out, a focus is laid upon the importance of international cooperation in this field. In this respect, issues included are regulatory frameworks for competition or intellectual property rights, technology transfer and development strategies, standardization, management of the radio frequency spectrum and Internet governance. To meet these ambitious expectations, the availability of user-friendly, affordable, culturally sensitive and development-oriented applications should receive from both government and local authorities.
Action lines in this field include e-government, e-business, e-learning, e-health, e-employment, eenvironment, e-agriculture, and e-science. In the context of the information society, the special relevance of the availability of content in diverse languages and formats, and of the preservation of cultural heritage through new technologies, was pointed out.
International imbalances in infrastructure, technical resources and the development of human skills need to be tackled. Most prominent, but as. This policy agenda is relatively broad and favours an integrated approach for the coordination of Information Society issues including, for example, aspects such as health, development, education and media. David, Johan Eksteen, Diane H. Sonnenwald, Paul F. Uhlir, Shu-Fen Tseng et al. Barbara Waugh, Russel C. Foot, Steven M. Schneider, Subbiah Arunachalam, Raed Sharif.
Gaining and Sustaining Access to Science Findings. Publishing and Disseminating Science Findings. Information Access and Issues of Bandwidth. Global Internet Research. William H. Dutton, Rick B. Duque, Jeremy Hunsinger. Science and ICT in China.